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Santa's workshop: inside China's slave labour toy factories

Simpons dvd

Year: 2004

Type: NGO documentary film (32 minutes 42 seconds) & report (Bjurling 2005 link).

Producers: Lotta Ekelund & Kristina Bjurling

Production companies: Fair Trade Center & Lotta Films for Swedwatch

Availability: free online, on YouTube (in full here) on Google Video (in full here & here)

Page reference: Chambers, M., Daglish, M., Rendell, S., Stapleton, G., Thompson, G. & Nuss, F. (2012) Santa’s workshop: inside China’s slave labour factories. followthethings.com (http://followthethings.com/santasworkshop.shtml, last accessed <insert date here>)

Lego re-creation

Santa's Workshop

Descriptions

We spend more than 25 billion euros on toys in Europe. Customers say that they usually look for “sweet and happy” toys. But who produces them? (Source: Anon nda p.1 link).

[Santa’s Workshop is a] documentary is based in europe, directed at european consumers of chinese goods (Source: lambchopxoxo 2012 np link).

Santas Workshop takes you to the real world of China’s toy factories. Low labour costs attract more and more companies to China. Today more than 75% of our toys are made in China. But this industry takes its toll on the workers and on the environment. Workers tell us about long working hours, low wages and dangerous work places. Those who protest or try to organise trade unions risk imprisonment. The Swedish buyers blame bad conditions on the Chinese suppliers. But they say that increasingly hard competition gives them no option. Who should we believe? And what can you do to bring about a fairer and more humane toy trade? (Source: Lottafilm 2011 np link).

Santa’s Workshop ... is a Swedish documentary which looks at how and where the toys we buy in the West are manufactured. In particular, they look at the Swedish market with a focus on huge companies such as ICA and Coop and how their supposed ethical standards are violated by Chinese sweatshops. The filmmakers go to Hong Kong (where they are at least legally allowed to film) where they find that many toy manufacturers have left and gone to China where factories pay workers menial wages for working 12 hour days. Union activity is banned and as one of the factory managers says, 90% of the workers are women because they are “easier to manage”. Salaries are so low, that workers can hardly survive in the outside world. In the end, most of them live within the confines of the factory walls in virtual prison cell accommodation or even sleep on the factory floor itself. Added to this is the chronic environmental pollution that the factories cause by pumping sewage into local rivers. The documentary features secret interviews and filming within China’s factories as well as a Christian organisation that is one of the few fighting for the rights of workers. As one of the Swedish commercial agents summarises at the end, the problem they have found is that if they do increase prices of toys to enable workers to get a fairer wage, consumers stop buying the products (Source: Mead 2009 np link).

These workers are forced to work overtime or else they would not get their monthly wages. In one case, one of them voice out that she has to work 7 days a week with no break and from 6 in the morning till midnight. During the peak where manufacturing contracts flood the factory, they are forced to work till dawn. Imagine that, 6am till to around 3am or 4am, and then you start work at 6am again (Source: Anon ndb np link).

SANTA’S WORKSHOP ... informs us that the health conditions of toy manufacturing companies in China is appalling, and this is not limited to the toy sector but throughout all manufacturing plants. Toys that we buy are not cheap, but it sure is cheap to manufacture them in China. That leaves a huge gap, expensive toys that are cheaply produced, so guess who’s profiting? ... [It] tells us that what’s worse about this issue is that the companies that orders these toys are not aware of the conditions of the factories. Or rather, they assume all is well and can’t be bothered to step in until they’re exposed. ... [It] reveals that these workers are forced to work overtime or else they would not get their monthly wages. In one case, one of them voice out that she has to work 7 days a week with no break and from 6 in the morning till midnight. During the peak where manufacturing contracts flood the factory, they are forced to work till dawn. Imagine that, 6am till to around 3am or 4am, and then you start work at 6am again. ... [It] reminds us not to forget the puny wages that they get from all the work done. 700-800 yuan per month if they work overtime. That is just a meager 100~110 USD. Workers union is a strict no no in the communist state of China, so there is basically no channels to voice out (Source: Documentary Live 2009 np link).

Inspiration / Process / Technique / Methodology

The Fair Trade Center, a Swedish non-governmental organization, produced the documentary Santa’s Worskshop ... While it proves to be full of harsh criticism of the Chinese factory system ... and exposes the difficult realities in the daily lives of desperate laborers, the producers’ aim is to make the audience think then react. Is the blame to be found in the government, the factory owner’s, the laborers, the foreign corporate buyers who shop for outrageous deals, or in the hands of the average consumer who buys these products? What if anything can be done? (Source: VLC 2011 np link).

SwedWatch has used several methods in order to discover as much information as possible about the current situation at toy manufacturers producing for the Swedish market. The most important part has been an elaborated and in-depth cooperation project with an experienced social compliance consultant with a local presence in the Guangdong province (Source: Bjurling 2009 p.9 link).

The purpose of the case study visit was to find out how the suppliers live up to legislation, ILO conventions and the companies' codes of conduct. Apart from the gathering of information for this report, a film: ‘Santa’s workshop’ was recorded during the trip (Source: Bjurling 2005 p.31 link).

The case study of SwedWatch is founded on both second hand information from researchers, NGOs and trade unions as well as from first-hand information from concerned people at companies, workplaces and organisations. Kristina Bjurling at SwedWatch and Lotta Ekelund at LottaFilm visited Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Dongguan between May 17 and 30 in 2004.Throughout the visit Lotta Ekelund captured material for the film Santa’s Workshop. During the progress of work, we have had the ambition of letting all parties air their views. The toy industry consists of many stakeholders and intermediaries. SwedWatch has chosen to focus on the companies who market their own brand names towards the consumers. As a result of the consumer pressure, these companies, which are in close connection to the customers, have a strong motivating force for making changes and the middlemen of the industry are believed to be influenced by the actions of the leading companies of the business (Source: Bjurling 2005 p.8 link).

Discussion / Responses

I wonder ... if Swedish consumers are truly aware of some of the conditions the toys they are buying for their kids are produced in. The question is, if they were, would it make any difference? After all, it is only by pressure from consumers at the end of the day that will bring any kind of change. Are we all so desperate to save a few euros or dollars that we don’t care how goods are produced? I’d like to believe that most people do care and Santa’s Workshop is a good starting point for considering this moral dilemma in more depth. This brave and disturbing documentary deserves to be seen widely (Source: Mead 2009 np link).

I think it’s awful how the chinese have to work very long hours, with very little pay. You really can take granted for what people are doing for work now a days in other countries, you don’t really realized what’s going on, it’s sad really. I also think it’s an impeccable documentry, it makes you realize how easy you have it. Unlike those who suffer from poverty... (Source: colleen 2010 np link).

Very disturbing, feel very sad for those people. Not only are they brainwashed and conditioned to think they deserve no better. Their water and food that is ‘provided’ is probably ‘spiked’ with chemicals/drugs to keep them anesthesied (Source: CC 2011 np link).

Chinese people don't deserve this. Americans should see how it feels (Source: YukiKawaii05 2012 np link).

Jobs and work condition in America is something we need to worry about, Asian are aggressive rat racer, they have their style of work let’s leave them alone (Source: poidsfi 2009 np link).

I’ve seen worse working conditions right here in the US. I can also tell that they have taken much of the interviews out of context. They know nothing about Asian culture, yet they try to twist it around like it’s some sort of evil. These women go there and work as many hours as they can, spending as little as possible, and sending almost everything they earn home to their parents. Unlike Americans, Asians dedicate their lives to supporting their parents. Trust me, I’m married to an Asian and this is what I’ve learned about my wife’s culture. Although I may not agree with her culture, I still have to respect it. This is called cultural relativism and according to it, the makers of this documentary are being both immoral and unethical because they are judging other cultures by comparing them to and expecting them to conform to their own cultural values and beliefs. These people are nothing more than bigots. They need to stop dictating what they perceive should be appropriate in other cultures (Source: Crowley 2011 np link).

I am Chinese and there is nothing in our work ethic that says we could work 14+ hour workdays and they are choosing it because they have no choice not because they want to. It’s a simple matter of if the worker’s wages were better they could fulfill their family obligations as well as have a decent life. It’s not the physical environment they work in that’s oppressive, it’s the social one that states they cannot speak out for fear of being fired, and this is the only job they can find. These people don’t even have the option to simply farm for themselves because the land and water are all owned by the country. It’s extremely admirable these people are leaving their homes to suffer torturous conditions like this and anyone who isn’t moved and ashamed by this film is a disgusting human being. We, the customers are ultimately responsible, every dollar you spend is a vote for the continuation of what’s going on in china. The managers have no incentive to change other than their own moral compasses which are obviously broken. The documentary makers are showing the plight of these poor workers, i don’t see anything that shows them saying that workers are doing anything wrong, it’s obvious what their dilemma is. They might as well be indentured servants (Source: K_K_D 2011 np link).

It's a shame for us, as a Chinese! Made-in-China, rather than Design-in-China. We should do something to change the situation! (Source: MrBarton07 2012 np link).

I worked in this area of China for 3 years for an American Company Who supplied Chemicals in the Electronic manufacturing sector. All of this is true. Additionally, for electronics at least two sets of books are kept. One for the company and another to be seem by visiting customers (showing unparalleled process control and reliability) “The book of Lies”. Every time you make a purchase and it says “Made in China” You contribute to what you just saw here (Source: tetonpwb 2008 np link).

Allowing Capitalism into developing countries has NOT made their lives better. Not by a long shot. Not in Mexico, or Haiti, or Taiwan, and China (which is held up as the great success) the ‘people’ are still the poorest “in the world”. At least when they could grow their own food, live with extended family, the waterways were not poisoned and there was humanity in their lives. (Today more than 100 million chinese live on less than $1 a day and their cost of living has gone up 700%). Our “Western world Businesses” did that to them – the only solution? Get Out! (Source: McKay 2011 np link).

I think the central government is trying to solve this problems but since the rest of the government is deeply corrupted this problem can never be solved. As a chinese I really hate to see this and I feel very sad to these poor workers, what i hated the most about the Chinese society nowadays is that in China the laws are very flexible, therefore rich people have great powers to do whatever they want (Source: Source: pleasebefair 2011 np link).

It’s not quite the whole story as I regularly deal with Chinese suppliers myself so do have an insiders view. Actually many of these Chinese workers will work in a factory for a couple of years and are willing to endure what from a western viewpoint is appalling conditions to earn enough to buy a house or small business in their home village. You have to remember China doesn’t have the same welfare system so if you don’t work no one is going to feed, cloth or house you and your family (Source: hkpho0ey 2011 np link).

This doc just makes the china look bad. If these people didnt work they’ll be in poverty like Africa these chinese workers should be very happy that they have jobs and earning money otherwise they’ll be the vilages working in the farms with less the half wage of what they get from the factories. If they’re not happy they can go back to their rice farms its simple humans are never happy with anything (Source: 01bad2dbone 2011 np link).

I think of all the crap that’s sold at stores like Wall-Mart. No one who shops there would pay more to help their fellow Humans. (I don’t shop there) Nor will Toy manufacturers do anything until we vote with our wallets. Talk to your Churches. Show this video (Source: Bradford54 2007 np link).

I’m having a hard time caring here (Source: Western-Horseman 2008 np link).

It’s sad seeing the worn-out workers crashed out at their work stations – but as one guy mentioned, if we stop buying their stuff they face an even worse time...catch 22 (Source: thecleaner001 2008 np link).

What can people do to help? If we don’t buy the toys, they lose. If we do buy the toys, they lose. I hate how the guy in the suit says “it makes no sense to give them more money for less work”, but I bet he gets more money for less work. Wealthy people are so greedy! You would think that human nature would take care of each other. They can still be wealthy & give a bit more to their workers (Source: Leann 2010 np link).

My mom worked as a child in China sewing doll clothes in one of these factories. Now she works in the US with normal working conditions. When I told her to boycott toys made in China, she got mad at me and went off. She told me if everyone boycotted, then many people would be left without jobs and money to survive. Even with harsh working conditions, mistreatment, and being taken advantage of from her childhood past, she is still grateful that she had a job and a means to money (Source: lumwu 2011 np link).

Sad but how can someone so far away solve it. Like someone mentioned – if you don’t buy they are out of work. If you do buy – these are accepted practices. I try not to buy now things from china when I can. I avoid the dollar stores because that’s where all of their stuff seems to come from. It’s not just factories that exploit them. You can get [computer] programming from some countries for as low as $2 an hour. As an american I simply can’t compete with that. There are 189 hours in a week. I would have to work day and night with no sleep and only make $378 before taxes. I have a weekly budget of $120 just for food and pet supplies. That does not count elec, gas, water, internet, phone, rent, car, student loan for college etc. and I carry no health insurance so that all has to be paid cash. Back trouble so bad I couldn’t move once and it cost me 250 to take an ambulance and over 600 just to be seen in emergency care and they had no resolution other than “if it stays bad, you may need surgery”. I still managed to hobble off to school the next painful week doped up on over the counter meds because the bills keep coming half paralyzed or not so I had to get the classes done. Don’t think americans won’t work hard for something. It hurts my feelings when someone uses outsourced programming in my country just because they are cheaper When someone wants the cheapest they just can’t come to americans – we have too many costs to live in america to be that cheap. Just remember when you buy cheap there’s a reason eh. I tend to now favor expensive things. They don’t seem to break as often and while it means I pay more out, I imagine that it’s because a worker was paid enough to live and not tortured by work (Source: Dodgy 2010 np link).

can someone tell me the difference between this an slavery (Source: t6yz 2012 np link).

Nothing less than Hell on Earth (Source: Matt 2010 np link).

The sickest irony is Disney, Disney toys are made by child, slave labor in China, to bring smiles to children living on credit in America. Talk about a fucked up world (Source: King 2009 np link).

Parents want to make their kids happy so they’ll forgo ethics for the joy in their childs face unless the parents are socially aware type folks but the average citizen just wants to save a few dollars (Source: godstomper 2008 np link).

Don’t worry too much, there are plenty of employers that would have us working in the same conditions if they could (Source: trizzo 2008 np link).

First some kids should be able to work. In America children CANT work. I worked at a factory in America and it was not uncommon to work 60 days 12 hours a day. Officially they cant make you do that but insinuate trouble if not. If they made more money in China they would still work overtime. Americans work overtime while making 12 dollars an hour, many times willingly (You never have enough money) (Source: Lionstail 2008 np link).

I work in manufacturing in Asia and I can say that it is not fair to place the blame entirely on the factories. The buyers place extremely stringent controls on price and payment terms so that factories are sure to find ways to make the price. My factory loses out to China all the time because of being a few percentage points above their target price or demanding payment terms that are very unreasonable in countries such as Thailand where there is little or no bank financing support. The fact is, the market demands lower prices so blame yourselves. Our factory practices within the law and wages are higher than minimum in Thailand. Some factories cheat but in the end, labour is short and they lose. The buyers DO NOT CARE, all they want is low price. That is it (Source: Kelly 2011 np link).

If the Chinese government enforced Chinese laws then the greedy western companies would have left China long time ago because cost of production would go up. Western companies are just as responsible - They KNOW what is going on, but choose to have a blind eye to the truth in the name of profits (Source: Konman001 2012 np link).

Parents and people, young and old, need to unite and draw a line and take a firm stance to stop making toy factory slavery profitable (Source: PRlog 2009 np link).

A real eye opener for me. Even more reason i have now to hate the things the governments allow to happen to there own people (Source: Bar 2010 np link).

The Scandinavian film makers do a good job of showing both sides of the equation, the factory workers who are forced by their bosses to lie about the misery of their conditions and the multinationals who often don’t realize what their bargaining is doing (Source: Anon 2009 np link).

I believe that this should be an enlightenment of our greed as consumers, at the cost of those who suffer for our selfish indulgences in today’s western society (Source: Princesspatricia 2011 np link).

It’s fascinating to watch the blame being pushed around. It’s the worker’s fault, no, it’s the factories’ fault, no, it’s the client’s fault and last but not least, it’s the customer’s fault. The head in the sand attitude is quite remarkable (Source: marathonmilk 2011 np link).

I wonder however if Swedish consumers are truly aware of some of the conditions the toys they are buying for their kids are produced in. The question is, if they were, would it make any difference? After all, it is only by pressure from consumers at the end of the day that will bring any kind of change. Are we all so desperate to save a few euros or dollars that we don’t care how goods are produced? I’d like to believe that most people do care and Santa’s Workshop is a good starting point for considering this moral dilemma in more depth. This brave and disturbing documentary deserves to be seen widely (Source: Costa 2011 np link).

Spirit is good, but not practical. Neither will the majority of toy buyers watch this video nor will those children stop demanding for them (Source: Azmul 2011 np link).

Impacts / Outcomes

Great Documentary, it completely changes the way you look at toys and other products made in China (Source: Richard 2009 np link).

Christmas is almost upon us, but if you still have some last minute shopping to do, take a look at the video ... before you hit the shops. If you consider yourself a caring person who would not knowingly cause suffering to another, then please DON’T BUY TOYS MADE IN CHINA (Source: Vegan Prime 2010 np link).

This Christmas, few people probably gave any thoughts to where the toys they bought have come from. If they saw Santa’s Workshop however, they may have thought twice before filling their kid’s Christmas stockings (Source: Mead 2009 np link).

This is a fantastic short film that provides a point of view on toys. We should all think about, the cost of our goodies. It could be compared with meat eaters visiting a slaughterhouse ... just leaves a bad feeling for a long time (Source: Jlwilliamsjnr 2010 np link).

Bottom line, if you are not checking the labels to make sure it’s not from china, then you are part of the problem. Boycott products made in china, it’s a matter of national pride (Source: VacuumTruck 2008 np link).

Boycott everything made in China! Oh ... wait (Source: mac02 2008 np link).

... all the viewers of these video have computer monitors made in China (Source: taradula86 2012 np link).

Don’t take my keyboard... oh sh*t my mouse.. oh f*%k monitor!!! wtf PC too?? wth! is everything made in China? damn! U shouldn’t have said that ... sigh =/ (Source: baluchsaab 2008 link).

The sad part is ... people will watch this and say “awww thats so sad” and still go out tomorrow and buy toys made in china ... as for me I buy local no big company brands (Source: Marie 1w 2010 np link).

Dear consumer - wake up next time you buy a radio or another product for 5$. Somebody has been robbed down the road in order for you to buy your low price products (Source: podapoul 2011 np link).

Now, the conditions that these people find themselves working in is a black eye on the jovial world of childrens toys, everyone knows about it, but no one seems to make a stand. As mentioned in this documentary, its the consumers who refuse to pay the extra cost. Now, this is not to say the owners of Western toy companies who decide on production in the east due to the cheap labor costs are innocent, oh far from it. With only a single exception, they all come across as completely abysmal humans. This is a worldwide problem that can’t be solved by one little thing, but requires a collection of little things all happening at once. These need to be the creation of unions for the workers themselves, more humane conditions provided by their factory owners, more humane deals made regarding the production of the toys by the western toy shops, and more consideration on the behalf of the buyer. This is a subject that everyone knows about, but not many people seem to truly know in detail. The comments in this documentary about the overtime situation in particular were vile, and the fat cats just don’t seem to be able to grasp the link between poor wage and increased need for overtime. It is easy to turn a blind eye to this subject, but something really, truly needs to be done. Think before you buy, please (Source: Anon 2011 np link).

I sent a mass email of this to friends and posted it on Facebook. I will never eat at McDonald’s again ... and will make sure to check all the labels on toys that I buy. If I have to pay a higher price to make someone else’s life better then so be it. Could you imagine being a child working in one of the factories making toys for other kids half way around the world ... and the wage you are paid could not even buy you the meal that toy comes with!! Just typing this is making me tear up again ... since then I have tried to make sure my clothing comes from my country as well. It is hard sometimes but if everyone did it. ... things would eventually change (Source: Kiamoko 2010 np link).

This is one of the most important films, I’ve seen this month. Just last Wednesday I went to the toy store BR to buy Christmas presents for my nieces. Every time I’m in there I get surprised because of how cheap toys are! You can get very cool toys for such low prices. And this makes me buying more... Watch this Swedish documentary. It’s in English. And it really makes you think... Whenever I think about where the toys come from, I think of machines and robots. But these Chinese ladies are human – even though they are treated as robots. And the toys buyers and chains in Europe (and the rest of the world) excuse themselves with: “Yeah, but the thing is, the consumers doesn’t want to pay more”. I think this is a huge lie. I know for a fact, that I would buy toys that were more expensive. I’d probably just buy less. But my nieces don’t need 5 pieces of toys either! They would be just as happy with just 2 great pieces of toys (Source: LauraJul 2011 np link).

What is obvious to me, is that the WTO needs to have regulations to protect workers health and safety and what is also obvious is that the WTO will never make strong regulations for workers unless we watch films like these to understand what is going on (Source: Anon 2009 np link).

It (Santa’s Workshop) has ... been shown frequently in schools, universities and by trade unions, consumer organisations and other NGO’s in many countries, mainly in Europe (Source: Lottafilm 2004 np link).

We are pleased to update you on the situation after the research made more than 1 year ago ... We are continuing to encourage and help the suppliers of TOP-TOY branded products on improving the ethical and working conditions for the workers (Source: Gjoerup 2005 np link).

Since 2009, ICTI [International Council of Toy Industries] ... has introduced a new policy ... (This) allows factories to, for an interim period, run more overtime than is stated in legislation. Factories must promise to reduce working hours to 66 hours a week ...The discussion of more overtime in the toy industry than accepted by PRC law comes from a second review of Santa’s Workshop... The reason for the report is given in the intro: “For over ten years Fair Trade Center (FTC) has worked to promote sustainable trade. FTC is a Swedish ... NGO that review show Swedish companies that trade with or operate in, low-wage countries, take responsibility ...(M)uch has happened. In 1996 no Swedish company had a policy or code of conduct that took responsibility for the working conditions in its supply chain in any thorough way. By 2009 it is, in principle, the custom for companies to have an ethical policy for conditions in their supply chain. The question is no longer whether ...but how. At the same time a long series of studies and analyses indicate that very little has changed ... as regards issues such as union freedom, discrimination, empowerment and pay. The problems are specially great when it comes to companies who operate in – or who buy from suppliers that operate in - China or Vietnam, where free unions are forbidden. However, when reading the second revision of Santa’s Workshop it isn’t farfetched to interpret it as if the pace of change has increased. Several (of the companies discussed in the two revisions) have strengthened the competence of the people auditing their social requirements and have expanded their presence on the Chinese market. ... ICA has introduced new routines aimed at checking previously unknown sub-contractors ... But the developments are indeed ambiguous (Source: Hollander 2011 np link).

The trade union movement in Hong Kong points to the importance of the employees’ participation in the enforcement of the code of conduct, if the companies are indeed serious about improving the conditions for the migrant workers in Guangdong. An increasing number of studies point out that the companies should elaborate a follow-up of the ethical demands by actively engaging and educating the factory workers (Source: Hollander 2011 np link).

There continues to be a growing movement to take labor abuses and slavery out of the supply chain of the products we use. Last month, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger passed SB 657, which calls for all businesses that sell products in California and make over $100 million globally to discloses what they are voluntarily doing to ensure that their products are slavery free. In July, a measure to reveal the existence of conflict minerals in the supply chain of U.S. products was bundled into the Wall Street Reform Act. And last week, Change.org launched a petition in response to the news that children’s clothing manufacturer Gymboree has refused to ensure that Uzbek child labor is taken out of their cotton supply chain (Source: Keehn 2010 np link).

Five years after the first report was published ... a follow-up report, produced by SwedWatch in cooperation with its member organisation Fair Trade Center and the Swedish Consumers’ Association ... aims to investigate if the companies who purchase these toys have succeeded in complying with their own CSR standards. Some major improvements have taken place since the last study in 2004 and this shows that this business needs to be monitored and reviewed. The picture is still far from the cosy living room where the gifts are opened ... The most promising improvement since 2004 is that most employees are provided with labour contracts, which are a legal requirement in China, and workers seem to be more aware of their rights (Source: Bjurling 2009 p.5 link).

One of the demands [of Swedwatch’s 2009 report “Reviewing Santa’s workshop”] was that the toy business ensures that employees in toy factories in China become aware of their rights and have the opportunity to complain if these are violated. The 2011 follow-up has been conducted through a round table meeting, where the companies had the opportunity to address the actions taken after the recommendations in the report 2009. Besides the toy companies the toy industries association ICTI CARE and the Hong Kong based NGO SACOM have had important roles in the discussion. A round table meeting was organized by Swedwatch and took place in Stockholm in February 2011...The follow-up shows that the companies have acted upon the criticism ... The follow-up study reveals that the industry has made real progress since 2009. On the other hand working days are still too long, the wages are too low and the information to consumers is still not up to pair, although improved since 2009 (Source: Swedwatch 2011 p.3 link).

References / Further Reading

01bad2dbone (2011) Comment on Santa’s Workshop: Inside China’s Slave Labour Toy Factories, Topdocumentaryfilms.com (http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/santas-workshop/ accessed 1 November 2011)

Anon (2009) SANTA’S WORKSHOP - INSIDE CHINA’S SLAVE LABOR TOY FACTORIES, freedocumentaries.org (http://freedocumentaries.org/int.php?filmID=297 last accessed 21 June 2012)

Anon (2011) Documental 01: Santa’s Workshop – Inside China’s Slave Labor Toy Factories, Penguinorchestra.wordpress.com, 28 June (http://penguinorchestra.wordpress.com/2011/06/ 28/documental-01-santas-workshop-inside-chinas-slave-labor-toy-factories/ last accessed 6 November 2011)

Anon. (nda) Learning Resource, jedensvetnaskolach.cz (http://www.jedensvetnaskolach.cz/download/pdf/jsnsfilmswandchmaterials_9.pdf last accessed 21 June 2012)

Anon (ndb) Comment on Santa’s Workshop: Inside China’s Slave Labour Toy Factories. Documentaryheaven.com, 28 July (http://documentaryheaven.com/santas-workshop-inside- chinas-slave-labor-toy-factories/ accessed 21 June 2012)

Azmul (2011) Comment on Santa’s Workshop: Inside China’s Slave Labour Toy Factories, Topdocumentaryfilms.com (http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/santas-workshop/ last accessed 1 November 2011)

Baluchsaab (2008) Comment on Santa’s Workshop: Inside China’s Slave Labour Toy Factories, Liveleak.com, 24 December (http://www.liveleak.com/view? i=4d9_1230151116&c=1#comment_page=1 last accessed 3 November 2011)

Bar (2010) Comment on Santa’s Workshop: Inside China’s Slave Labour Toy Factories, Topdocumentaryfilms.com (http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/santas-workshop/ last accessed 1 November 2011)

Bjurling, K. (2005) Easy to manage: a report on Chinese toy workers and the responsibility of the companies, SwedWatch.org (http://www.swedwatch.org/sites/default/files/easytomanage.toyreport.pdf last accessed 31 October 2011)

Bjurling, K. (2009) Reviewing Santa’s Workshop, eu-china.net (http://www.eu-china.net/web/cms/upload/pdf/materialien/bjurling_2009_reviewing_santas_workshop_09-12-15.pdf last accessed 21 June 2012)

Bradford54 (2007) Comment on Santa’s Workshop: Inside China’s Slave Labour Toy Factories. Stumbleupon.com, 23 December (http://www.stumbleupon.com/url/video.google.com/videoplay%253Fdocid%253D-6733564947664645042 last accessed 6 November 2011)

CC (2011) Comment on Santa’s Workshop: Inside China’s Slave Labour Toy Factories, Topdocumentaryfilms.com (http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/santas-workshop/ last accessed 1 November 2011)

colleen (2010) Comment on Santa’s Workshop: Inside China’s Slave Labour Toy Factories, Topdocumentaryfilms.com (http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/santas-workshop/ last accessed 1 November 2011)

Costa, C. (2011) Santa’s Workshop: Inside China’s Slave Labour Toy Factories, Flickr.com, 29 April (http://www.flickr.com/photos/celiacostaestudos/5668887409/ last accessed 4 November 2011)

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Compiled by Matthew Chambers, Millie Daglish, Sophie Rendell, George Stapleton, Georgie Thompson & Franziska Nuss edited by Eleanor Bird & Ian Cook (last updated June 2012). Legoing by Eleanor Bird. Page created for followthethings.com as part of the ‘Geographies of Material Cultures’ module, University of Exeter.